The C++ Programming Language

4th Edition (2013)
Bjarne Stroustrup

Part I: Introduction

1. Notes to the Reader

C++ is not (strictly) an object-oriented programming language (§1.2.1). It aims to support several popular programming styles and techniques:

  • Procedural programming
  • Data abstraction
  • Object-oriented programming
  • Generic programming

C++11 adds rvalue references which make functional programming techniques (passing around temporary objects instead of mutating objects with identity) more efficient (§1.2.1).

The static type system in C++ is key to good performance (§1.2.2).

C and C++ are distinct languages: C++ is not a proper superset of C (§1.2.3). The languages have evolved independently, borrowing features from each other along the way. However:

The definition of C++ has been revised to ensure that a construct that is both legal C and legal C++ has the same meaning in both languages.

C++ was designed to be efficient (§1.2.4). Except for dynamic memory allocation (new and delete), run-time type information (typeid and dynamic_cast), and exceptions (try and throw), the language requires no run-time support.

I'm skipping the rest of Part I (a brief tour of C++) and jumping ahead to the details.

Part II: Basic Facilities

6. Types and Declarations

Standards-compliant code isn't necessarily good code (§6.1). It's not necessarily portable, either, as many features are implementation-defined (due to target platform hardware differences), and most real-world code uses facilities defined by the system (e.g., POSIX), not the language.

Use compile-time static assertions (static_assert()) to verify assumptions about the implementation. Avoid unspecified and undefined behavior. Use static analysis tools.

C++ runs in hosted or freestanding environments (§6.1.1). Implementations targeting freestanding environments allow language features (like exceptions) to be disabled and include fewer library facilities (e.g., no STL).

C++ is strongly-typed (§6.2):

Every name (identifier) in a C++ program has a type associated with it.

The type system is based on the fundamental data storage units provided by most computers (§6.2.1):

The assumption is that a computer provides bytes for holding characters, words for holding and computing integer values, some entity most suitable for floating-point computation, and addresses for referring to those entities.

Of the fundamental types, use only bool, char, int, and double, unless you have specialized space or performance requirements.

char is equivalent to either signed char or unsigned char (implementation-defined), and at least 8 bits wide (§6.2.3).

The C++ standard supports ones-complement hardware. As such, the value -128 may not be representable in an 8-bit signed char on all platforms.

char, signed char, and unsigned char are distinct types; you can't mix pointers between the types (§

C++ defines character literals ('a') as char, unlike C which defines them as int (§

Integer types come in three flavors (plain, signed, unsigned) and four sizes (short, plain, long, and long long) (§6.2.4). The plain integer types (int, long, etc) are always signed; the signed types are synonyms for the plain types. The unsigned types are best used to represent bit arrays; any other use (to increase numerical range or enforce positive values) is fraught due to implict type conversion.

The type of an integer literal depends on its form (decimal, octal, or hex), value, and suffix (§ There's a long list of rules, but the take home message is to be explicit (using suffixes) whenever you want something besides an int:

#include <iostream>

int main() {
  std::cout << (0xBEEF << 16) << std::endl;

prints -1091633152 on a machine with 32-bit ints, while:

#include <iostream>

int main() {
  std::cout << (0xBEEFU << 16) << std::endl;

prints 3203334144.

Floating point literals are of type double unless a type suffix is supplied (§

Programmers can define suffix operators for user-defined types (§6.2.6), opening the possiblity for literals like "foo bar"s and 123_km -- who knew?

void is a fundamental type useful only in building more complex types; there are no void objects (§6.2.7).

Stroustrup wants you to write portable code (§6.2.8):

People who claim they don’t care about portability usually do so because they use only a single system and feel they can afford the attitude that “the language is what my compiler implements.” This is a narrow and shortsighted view.

On the sizes of the fundamental types (§6.2.8):

Sizes of C++ objects are expressed in terms of multiples of the size of a char, so by definition the size of a char is 1. ... [I]t is guaranteed that a char has at least 8 bits, a short at least 16 bits, and a long at least 32 bits.

The fundamental types can be intermixed in expressions; the compiler converts values as necessary, but cannot always preserve the value, as when converting a wider type to a narrower one, or a floating type to an integer:

#include <iostream>

int main()
  double  d = 123456.789;
  int     i = d;
  short   s = d;
  char    c = d;
  bool    b = d;

  std::cout << std::fixed
            << "d: " << d << '\n'
            << "i: " << i << '\n'
            << "s: " << s << '\n'
            << "c: " << (int)c << '\n'
            << "b: " << b << '\n';


d: 123456.789000
i: 123456
s: -7616
c: 64
b: 1

Caveat programmor: value-destroying conversions are perfectly legal and don't produce any compiler warnings. Per Stroustrup (§6.2.8):

Conversions that are not value-preserving are best avoided.

Two non-fundamental but useful types defined in <cstddef> are:

  • size_t, capable of representing the size (in bytes) of any object
  • ptrdiff_t, capable of representing the difference between any two pointers (i.e., the number of elements in an array)

An object may occupy more memory than its type suggests; the extra memory is padding due to the alignment requirements of the hardware (§6.2.9). The alignof() operator and alignas() type specifier can be used to get or set, respectively, the alignment of an object.

Declarations specify the type of an entity; definitions reserve memory for it (§6.3):

There must always be exactly one definition for each name in a C++ program. However, there can be many declarations.

Declarations can be quite complex, including optional prefix specifiers (static, virtual), suffix function specifiers (const, noexcept), and initializer or function body, but all declarations include a base type and a declarator. The declarator defines the name and may include declarator operators (*, &, [], ()) to declare pointers, references, arrays, and functions, respectively. The postfix declarator operators ([] and ()) bind tighter than the prefix operators (* and &), so parentheses are required to declare types like pointer-to-function, thus:

void (*f)();

void *g();

declares f as pointer-to-function and g as a function returning void-pointer.

While multiple names can be declared in a single declaration, declarator operators bind to exactly one name (6.3.2). Thus:

char* p, q;

declares p as pointer-to-char, and q as a plain char.

Such declarations with multiple names and nontrivial declarators make a program harder to read and should be avoided.

Some names are reserved for the implementation (§6.3.3):

  • non-local names beginning with underscore (_start)
  • any name beginning with an underscore and uppercase letter (_Bool)
  • any name containing a double underscore (__func__)

Stroustrup offers some advice on naming (one of two hard things in computer science):

Names from a large scope ought to have relatively long and reasonably obvious names. However, code is clearer if names used only in a small scope have short, conventional names such as x, i, and p. ... Use all capitals for macros and never for non-macros.

Four syntactic styles of object initialization are possible (§6.3.5):

  • T a1 {v};: list initialization
  • T a2 = {v};: list or aggregate initialization
  • T a2 = v;: assignment-style initialization
  • T a3(v);: function-style initialization

List initializtion is new in C++11. According to Stroustrup, this is the preferred style as it can be used in every context and avoids narrowing conversions (e.g., long to int and double to float). Personally, I find it rather ugly.

You probably don't want list initialization when using auto for type deduction, though; the deduced type would be std::initializer_list<T>.

The empty list initializer ({}) initializes an object to the type's default value.

Initialization is not required (§, but:

The only really good case for an uninitialized variable is a large input buffer.

The value of an uninitialized variable depends on the type of the variable and its storage duration:

Global, namespace, local static, and static member variables are initialized to {} of the appropriate type. For the built-in types, this happens by virtue of the fact that the .bss segment is zeroed by the program loader. For user-defined types, the compiler inserts calls to the type's default constructor before the object is first referenced.

Variables of built-in type with automatic or dynamic storage duration are not default initialized. Automatic and dynamic variables of user-defined type are default initialized by calling the default constructor.

In declarations empty parentheses define a function, so to explicitly default initialize an object use {} rather than () (§

T x{}; // declares, defines, and initializes a T
T y(); // declares a function returning T